MyScope
training for advanced research

Search


Glossary terms about X-rays

X-rays
X-rays are electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the range 0.01 to 10 nm.

▼2 more terms contain X-rays



22 pages mention X-rays

Accuracy, Precision and Detection Limits
It depends on the number of x-rays in the spectrum and the statistics related to that number. 
Additional material
 
Auger animation
 
Background information - What is energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy?
Two types of x-rays result from these interactions: Bremsstrahlung x-rays, which means ‘braking radiation’ and are also referred to as Continuum or background x-rays, and Characteristic x-rays
Bremsstrahlung animation
 
Bremsstrahlung X-ray generation
Two types of x-rays are produced by interaction of the electron beam with the sample in both the SEM and TEM: Bremsstrahlung (which means ‘braking radiation’) and Characteristic x-rays
Characteristic X-ray generation
 
Characteristic X-rays
Characteristic x-rays are produced by electron transitions between the electron shells. 
EDS spectral artifacts
Several artifacts can be produced in ED X-ray spectra because of the way the x-rays are detected and processed. 
EDS spectral resolution
Characteristic x-rays have discrete energies but in the process of detecting and measuring them the discrete lines spread into Gaussian peaks. 
Generation of X-rays in the Electron Microscope
In the SEM, secondary electrons are produced from the surface of the sample or topmost part of the interaction volume; backscattered electrons come from the top half of the interaction volume; and x-rays are generated within the whole of the interaction volume. 
Introduction
The input beam may comprise light (including laser beams), x-rays and other electro-magnetic waves, electrons, protons or ions. 
K-lines animation
 
KL-lines animation
 
L-lines animation
 
M-lines animation
 
Qualitative EDS X-ray microanalysis using SEM and TEM
If this is the case in the SEM, the higher energy X-ray lines may not be efficiently generated and low-energy x-rays will have to be used for element identification, e. 
Quantitative EDS X-ray microanalysis using SEM
The spectra are processed to remove Bremsstrahlung x-rays and spectral artifacts, and then the Characteristic x-rays are compared with data measured from standard reference materials. 
The photoelectric effect
 
X-ray detection by EDS
The most commonly used system in both SEMs and TEMs for detecting the x-rays that are generated and emitted from the sample is the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS, EDX or XEDS). 
X-ray intensity
Factors related to the sample, the system used to generate the x-rays and the detector used to measure the X-ray spectrum can all influence the height of the X-ray peaks. 
X-Ray mapping
The raw data for the image is a matrix of integers corresponding to the number of x-rays counted at each point and these are mapped to a single-band image with 0-255 levels.