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Glossary terms about Topography

The variation in the height of the sample as a function of position.

11 pages mention Topography

AFM calibration methods
AFM imaging of surfaces
AFM imaging: Interactions between the probe and sample
A plot of this upward and downward motion (z), as a function of the tip x - y position on the sample surface, provides a high-resolution image of the surface topography
Contact and tapping modes
Most topography is done in this mode. 
The higher the values, the faster the AFM will react to changes in the topography in the sample. 
Therefore, by scanning the tip over the surface at either a constant current or height, the record of the vertical tip motion will reflect the surface topography of the sample. 
Laser alignment on cantilever
Non-contact mode
topography can be measured with some difficulty. 
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
When a bias is applied between the tip and sample, electrons will tunnel from the one to the other and this current can be used to measure the topography of the sample. 
Set-point - contact mode
The trace does not represent the true surface topography