training for advanced research


Glossary terms about X-Ray

Electromagnetic waves with a wave length smaller than 10 but larger than 0.01 nanometers. This range coincides with the range of interatomic distances in materials. Therefore X-Rays are scattered by crystalline materials and give a three dimensional diffraction pattern, a subset of which is captured by the detector and presented as a two dimensional plot.

▼1 more term contains X-Ray

33 pages mention X-Ray

Additional material
Analysis of data
Qualitative powder diffraction involves the identification of a phase or phases in a specimen by comparison with single-phase X-ray powder diffraction patterns compiled in a database called the Powder Diffraction File (PDF-2). 
Applications of XRD
X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be used to unambiguously characterize the composition of pharmaceuticals. 
Background information
X-ray diffraction is a tool for the investigation of the structure of matter. 
Many techniques, including powder x-ray diffraction, require the use of monochromatic radiation (single wavelength x-rays). 
Although he did not know why this was true (x-rays had not yet been discovered, much less x-ray diffraction invented), we now know that this is so because studies of the atomic structure of any mineral proves that the structure remains within a close set of given limits or geometric relationships. 
The detector allows the diffracted X-rays to be detected. 
When a monochromatic X-ray comes into contact with a crystal lattice, interference patterns are produced by each atom hit by the beam. 
Entry slit at low angles
Interactive simulation of x-ray diffraction. 
Exit slit
Interactive simulation of x-ray diffraction. 
How to process XRD files in EVA
Interesting facts
Mayor Joh Hall Edwards pioneered x-ray photography for medical purposes. 
Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) uses x-rays to investigate and quantify the crystalline nature of materials by measuring the diffraction of x-rays from the planes of atoms within the material. 
Nobel prizes for research with X-Rays
Roentgen in Physics for the discovery of x-rays. 
The output from an X-ray diffraction experiment is usually presented as a diffractogram in which the intensity of diffracted x-rays is shown as a function of the scanning angle 2θ. 
Peak intensities
While crystal planes and lattices are helpful to understand the laws of diffraction, they are not what X-rays “see”. 
Powder diffraction
When this sample is placed in the path of a monochromatic X-ray beam, diffraction will occur from planes in those crystallites, which happen to be oriented at the correct angle to fulfill the Bragg condition. 
Powder diffractograms
In X-ray diffraction, the X-ray detector moves along a 2θ-circle with the sample in the centre of the circle. 
Primary optics
The primary optics controls the beam produced by the X-ray source, and manipulates it into forms more useful for diffraction experiments. 
There are a number of safety guidelines and factors to consider when using the equipment for X-ray diffraction. 
Sample preparation
Proper sample preparation is one of the most important requirements in the analysis of powder samples by X-ray diffraction . 
Secondary optics
The secondary optics retrieve the diffracted X-rays from the sample. 
Single crystal diffractometer
In the centre of two Ewald construction resides the crystal around the crystal you describe a sphere of radius 1/λ, λ being the X-ray wavelength. 
The source produces the X-rays used for analysing samples with X-ray diffraction. 
Sources - iron poor samples
Interactive simulation of x-ray diffraction. 
Sources - iron rich samples
Interactive simulation of x-ray diffraction. 
Step-by-step instructions to use the Bruker D8 advanced research XRD
Maximum number of counts within 500,000 counts. x-ray window/shutter will not open if doors are not closed properly. 
Using the machine
There are multiple parameters that can be adjusted to tailor analysis when using an X-ray diffractometer. 
What the XRD machines can do
In addition to XRD it is also possible to carry x-ray reflectometery experiments of thin (< 200 nm) films on atomically smooth surfaces (e. 
X-ray diffraction in practice
Safety in x-ray diffraction  
X-ray diffractometer
Most diffractometers in materials science are based on the reflection geometry where the x-ray source and detector are on the same side of the sample; the scattered X-rays from the source are reflected off the sample and onto the detector. 
X-ray structure interaction
X-rays are several orders of magnitude smaller than visible light waves. 
X-rays were discovered in 1895 by German physicist Roentgen.