Electron-beam lithography (E-beam lithography or EBL)
EBL is a maskless lithography technique used for patterning of computer generated layout structures on photoresists on Si wafers. Upon irradiation of focused electron beam, electron-sensitive resists undergo chain-scission or crosslinking, resulting in solubility switch of materials during the subsequent development process (remove/retain exposed material in development depending on the tone of the resist). To date, EBL remains the highest resolution patterning tool in lithography, it is widely used in photomask fabrication and low volume production of semiconductor components.
There are also the microanalysis techniques associated with SEM: Spectroscopy for analysing the elemental make up of samples, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) for viewing crystallographic information, and Cathodoluminescence (CL) for imaging otherwise invisible microstructural defects and impurities in semiconductors and insulating materials.